I. Patient care, safety, and communication
A. Patient identification/documentation
B. Patient interaction
C. Verification of requested examination
D. Emergency situations
E. Universal precautions
F. Bioeffects and ALARA
II. Physics principles
A. Properties of ultrasound waves
B. Interactions of sound with tissue
C. Power, intensity and amplitude
D. Units of measurement
III. Ultrasound transducers
A. Transducer construction and characteristics
B. Transducer types (sector, linear, phased arrays
C. Spatial resolution
D. Transducer selection
IV. Pulse-echo instrumentation
A. Display modes and their formation (A-mode, B-mode, M-mode, 3-D, etc.)
B. Transmission of ultrasound
C. Reception of ultrasound (preprocessing)
D. Beam former
E. Postprocessing of ultrasound signals
F. Pulse-echo imaging artifacts
G. Tissue harmonic imaging
H. Realtime ultrasound instrumentation
I. Recording and storage devices
V. Doppler instrumentation and hemodynamics
A. Ability to acquire color flow image
B. Ability to acquire a Doppler spectral image
C. Ability to take measurements from the spectral waveform
VI. Quality assurance/quality control of equipment
A. Preventive maintenance
C. Performance testing with phantoms
Formulas: A few tips and tricks to make formulas work for you.
Relationships: (Direct and Indirect Relationships) are the most important thing to understand in the exam.
Beam Dynamics: What characteristics are in the beam? How do those affect each other?
Transducer Arrays: What types of arrays are used and how can you know the difference?
Transducers and Frequency: What effects are seen with a change of frequency? What is the relationship between the transducer and the frequency?
Period and Frequency: In this module, we will do our best to help you truly grasp each concept.
Wavelength: Understanding wavelength and how to use the wavelength equation. What is the relationship between wavelength and frequency?
Doppler: The Doppler effect is and how to calculate the Doppler shift. This is a large portion of the current exam.
Ultrasound Artifacts: We cover the most common artifacts and what causes them. We will also go over how they help us in the diagnosis of pathology.
Many more including Hemodynamics, elastography, doppler settings and artifacts, scale, Clinical Safety, Patient Care, and Quality Assurance. We also have videos showing how to answer questions easily.